When services can be administered in various settings, the Company reserves the right to reimburse only those services that are furnished in the most appropriate and cost-effective setting that is appropriate to the member’s medical needs and condition. This decision is based on the member’s current medical condition and any required monitoring or additional services that may coincide with the delivery of this service.
This Medical Policy Bulletin document describes the status of medical technology at the time the document was developed. Since that time, new technology may have emerged or new medical literature may have been published. This Medical Policy Bulletin will be reviewed regularly and be updated as scientific and medical literature becomes available. For more information on how Medical Policy Bulletins are developed, go to the About This Site section of this Medical Policy Web site.
The randomized, open-label, multicenter phase III study included 737 newly diagnosed individuals with multiple myeloma who are ineligible for high-dose chemotherapy and ASCT between the ages of 45 and 90. Individuals were randomly assigned to receive either daratumumab plus lenalidomide/dexamethasone or lenalidomide/dexamethasone alone in 28-day cycles.
At a median follow-up of 28.0 months, disease progression or death had occurred in 240 individuals (97 of 368 [26.4 percent] in the daratumumab group and 143 of 369 [38.8 percent] in the control group). The estimated percentage of individuals who were alive without disease progression at 30 months was 70.6 percent (95 percent confidence interval [CI], 65.0 to 75.4) in the daratumumab group and 55.6 percent (95 percent CI, 49.5 to 61.3) in the control group (hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.56; 95 percent CI, 0.43 to 0.73; P<0.001). The percentage of individuals with a complete response or better was 47.6 percent in the daratumumab group and 24.9 percent in the control group (P<0.001). A total of 24.2 percent of the individuals in the daratumumab group, as compared with 7.3 percent of the individuals in the control group, had results below the threshold for minimal residual disease (1 tumor cell per 105 white cells) (P<0.001).
Newly Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma: Daratumumab (Darzalex™) in Combination with Bortezomib, Thalidomide, and Dexamethasone in Individuals eligible for Autologous Stem Cell Transplant
On September 26, 2019, the FDA approved daratumumab (Darzalex™) for multiple myeloma in combination with bortezomib, thalidomide, and dexamethasone in newly diagnosed individuals who are eligible for ASCT.
Efficacy was investigated in CASSIOPEIA, an open-label, randomized, active-controlled phase 3 study comparing induction and consolidation treatment with daratumumab 16 mg/kg in combination with bortezomib, thalidomide and dexamethasone (D-VTd) (n=543) to treatment with bortezomib, thalidomide and dexamethasone (VTd) (n=542) in individuals with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma eligible for ASCT. Approval is based on data from CASSIOPEIA, including progression-free survival (PFS), stringent complete response at 100 days post-ASCT, and complete response rate at day 100 post-ASCT. The trial demonstrated an improvement in PFS in the D-VTd arm as compared to the VTd arm; with a median follow up of 18.8 months, the median PFS had not been reached in either arm. Treatment with D-VTd resulted in a reduction in the risk of progression or death by 53 percent compared to VTd alone (HR=0.47; 95 percent CI:0.33, 0.67; p<0.0001). The sCR rate at Day 100 post-ASCT was 28.9 percent in the D-VTd arm and 20.3 percent in the VTd arm. There were no significant differences in the number or type of serious adverse events in the two treatment arms.
D-VTd before and after autologous stem-cell transplantation improved depth of response and progression-free survival with acceptable safety. CASSIOPEIA is the first study showing the clinical benefit of daratumumab (Darzalex™) plus standard of care in transplant-eligible individuals with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma.
Monotherapy for Multiple Myeloma After Three Prior Lines of Therapy
The approval of daratumumab (Darzalex™) was based on the results of a two-part, open-label, multicenter, Phase 2 study. Enrolled in the trial were individuals who had responded to at least one previous treatment regimen, received an alkylating agent alone or in combination with other myeloma treatments, received at least three previous lines of treatment that included a proteasome inhibitor and an immunomodulatory drug, or had disease double-refractory to the most recent proteasome inhibitor and immunomodulatory drug they had received. (Refractory disease was defined as disease progression on or within 60 days of the last dose). All individuals had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status score of 2 or lower.
Part 1 was a dose-defining study of 34 individuals randomized (1:1) to either daratumumab (Darzalex™) 8 mg/kg every four weeks or 16 mg/kg weekly for eight weeks, then 16 mg/kg every two weeks for 16 weeks, then 16 mg/kg every four weeks. A first interim analysis was performed about eight weeks after the last individual's enrollment; at that time, the individual could crossover to the more effective dose if appropriate. A second interim analysis was conducted after another 25 individuals were treated for at least 8 weeks.
Part 2 was an expansion cohort of 65 individuals which brought the total number of individuals in the study to 106. All individuals were administered the optimal dose of 16 mg/kg weekly for eight weeks, then 16 mg/kg every two weeks for 16 weeks, then 16 mg/kg every four weeks thereafter.
The primary efficacy endpoint was overall response rate (ORR), which is a measurement of a positive response to treatment. In this study the ORR was the sum of partial response, very good partial response, complete response, and stringent complete response. The results concluded that the ORR was 29.2 percent, and there was a median duration of response of 7.4 months.
In Combination with Lenalidomide (Revlimid®) or Bortezomib (Velcade®) and Dexamethasone for Multiple Myeloma After at Least One Prior Line of Therapy
The approval of daratumumab (Darzalex™) in combination with lenalidomide (Revlimid®) and dexamethasone for the treatment of multiple myeloma after one prior therapy was based on a phase 3, randomized, open-label trial in 569 individuals. These individuals had relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma and received one or more previous lines of therapy. They were assigned to receive either daratumumab, lenalidomide and dexamethasone (daratumumab group, n=286), or lenalidomide and dexamethasone (control group, n=283). The primary endpoint of this study was progression-free survival. At a median follow-up of 13.5 months, there was a total of 169 events of disease progression or death; 53 (18.5 percent) in daratumumab group and 116 (41 percent) in the control group. The median progression-free survival was not reached in the daratumumab group, as compared to 18.4 months in the control group; however, the rate of progression-free survival at 12 months was 85.7 percent in the daratumumab group versus 63.2 percent in the control group. In conclusion, the group treated with daratumumab experienced a significant progression-free survival and higher rates of overall response in individuals with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. The daratumumab group did have higher rates of adverse reactions (including neutropenia and infusion-related reactions), but this did not result in increased treatment discontinuation or death.
The use of daratumumab (Darzalex™) in combination with bortezomib (Velcade®) and dexamethasone for multiple myeloma was approved based on a phase 3, open-label, randomized, multicenter trial. 498 individuals with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma were randomly assigned bortezomib and dexamethasone (control group) or daratumumab, bortezomib, and dexamethasone (dartumumab group). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival, which was defined as the time from the date of randomization to date of disease progression or death. At a median follow-up period of 7.4 months, a total of 189 events of disease progression or death had occurred; 67 in daratumumab group and 122 in the control group. The 12-month progression-free survival was 60.7 percent in the daratumumab group versus 26.9 percent in the control group. The overall response rate, which was a secondary endpoint of the study, was 82.9 percent in the daratumumab group and 63.2 percent in the control group. In conclusion, this study determined that, for individuals with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma, the combination of daratumumab, bortezomib, and dexamethasone resulted in significantly longer progression-free survival than bortezomib and dexamethasone alone. Additionally, the daratumumab group did experience infusion-related reactions (i.e., dyspnea, bronchospasm, and cough) and higher rates of thrombocytopenia and neutropenia.
In Combination with Pomalidomide (Pomalyst®) and Dexamethasone for Multiple Myeloma After Two Prior Therapies Including Lenalidomide and a Proteasome Inhibitor
Approval for daratumumab (Darzalex™) in combination with pomalidomide and dexamethasone for the treatment of multiple myeloma was based on an open-label trial including 103 individuals. The overall response rate (ORR) was 60 percent with a median progression-free survival (PFS) of 8.8 months, 12 month PFS of 42 percent, and median time to progression of 10.4 months.
There may be additional indications contained in the Policy section of this document due to evaluation of criteria highlighted in the Company’s off-label policy, and/or review of clinical guidelines issued by leading professional organizations and government entities.
Daratumumab (Darzalex). American Hospital Formulary Service (AHFS). Drug Information 2019. [Lexicomp Online Web site] 02/22/2019. Available at: http://online.lexi.com/lco/action/home [via subscription only]. Accessed October 25, 2019.
Daratumumab (Darzalex) Elsevier’s Gold Standard Clinical Pharmacology Compendium. [Clinical Key Web site]. 09/27/2019. Available at: https://www.clinicalkey.com/pharmacology/monograph/4729?sec=monindi&n=DARZALEX [via subscription only]. Accessed October 25, 2019.
daratumumab (Darzalex). Lexi-Drugs Compendium. [Lexicomp Online Web site]. . 10/22/2019. Available at: http://online.lexi.com/lco/action/doc/retrieve/docid/patch_f/5928764 [via subscription only]. Accessed October 25, 2019.
Daratumumab (Darzalex). Micromedex® DrugDex® Compendium. [Micromedex® Solutions Web site]. 10/18/2019. Available at: http://www.micromedexsolutions.com/micromedex2/librarian [via subscription only]. Accessed October 25, 2019.
Daratumumab (Darzalex). [Prescribing information]. Janssen Biotech, Inc., Horsham, PA 19044.; 09/2019. Available at: https://www.darzalex.com/. Accessed October 25, 2019.
Dimopoulos MA, Oriol A, Nahi H, et al. Daratumumab, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone for multiple myeloma. N Engl J Med. 2016;375(14):1319-1331.
Facon T, Kumar S, Plesner T, et al: Daratumumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone for untreated myeloma. N Engl J Med.2019;380(22):2104-2115.
Jelinek T, Hajek R. Monoclonal antibodies - A new era in the treatment of multiple myeloma. Blood Rev. 2015 Aug 24. pii: S0268-960X(15)00065-X. [Epub ahead of print].
Lonial S, Weiss BM, Usmani SZ, et al. Daratumumab monotherapy in patients with treatment-refractory multiple myeloma (SIRIUS): an open-label, randomised, phase 2 trial. Lancet. 2016 Jan 6. pii: S0140-6736(15)01120-4. [Epub ahead of print].
National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN). NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology - Multiple Myeloma (version 02.2020). [NCCN Web site]. 10/09/2019. Available at: http://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/f_guidelines.asp#myeloma [via free subscription]. Accessed October 25, 2019.
National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN). NCCN Drugs & Biologics Compendium. Daratumumab (Darzalex). [NCCN Web site]. 2019. Available at: http://www.nccn.org/professionals/drug_compendium/content/contents.asp [via subscription only]. Accessed October 25, 2019.
Palumbo A, Chanan-Khan A, Weisel K, et al. Daratumumab, bortezomib, and dexamethasone for multiple myeloma. N Engl J Med. 2016;375(8):754-766.
Rajkumar SV. Treatment of relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. [UpToDate Web site]. 09/09/2019. Available at: http://www.uptodate.com/contents/treatment-of-relapsed-or-refractory-multiple-myeloma?source=search_result&search=daratumumab&selectedTitle=4%7E10. Accessed October 25, 2019.
US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. daratumumab (Darzalex) drug label [FDA Web site]. 09/26/2019. Available at: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2019/761036s024lbl.pdf . Accessed October 25, 2019.
C90.00 Multiple myeloma not having achieved remission
C90.01 Multiple myeloma in remission
C90.02 Multiple myeloma in relapse
Policy: 08.00.15f:Off-label Coverage for Prescription Drugs and/or Biologics
Policy: 08.00.73l:Bortezomib (Bortezomib for Injection, Velcade®)
Policy: 08.01.05f:Carfilzomib (Kyprolis™)